Anne Germain, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Psychiatry & Psychology

Director, Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratories

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Military Sleep Tactics and Resilience Research Program

3811 O'Hara Street

Sterling Plaza 240

Pittsburgh, PA 15213

E: ang2@pitt.edu

T: 412-383-2150

Website: https://www.veteranssleep.pitt.edu/

Current Research Funding:

     •     W81XWH-12-2-0024 1129300 (Role: PI). US Department of Defense– USAMRAA. Dose-dependent effects of sleep

        disruption on fear responses and reward processing. 2012-2017.

     •     W81XWH-13-PHTBI- PT130572 (Roe: Co-PI). US Department of Defense– USAMRAA. Uncovering Physiological Markers

        Linking Sleep and PTSD. 2015-2018.

     •     W81XMH-10-2-0178 (Role: Co-I). Military Suicide Research Consortium, Defense Health Program. A Behavioral Sleep

        Intervention for Suicidal Behaviors in Military Veterans: A Randomized Controlled Pilot. MSRC.

     •     HD069375 (Role Co-I; site PI). Security and Vigilance in Military Couples: A Dynamic Model of Sleep, Interpersonal

        Relationships, and Health. 2011-2015.

     •     BAA 13-1 13154004. US Department of Defense– USAMRAA. (Role: Co-I) Targeted Evaluation, Action & Monitoring of

        Traumatic Brain Injury (TEAM-TBI). 2013-2015.

Selected Publications (Selected from 96 publications; * denotes work conducted by trainee):

     1.     Germain A, Nielsen TA. Impact of imagery rehearsal treatment on distressing dreams, psychological distress, and sleep

        parameters in nightmare patients. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 1:140-154, 2003.

     2.     Germain A, Nielsen TA. Sleep pathophysiology in PTSD and idiopathic nightmare sufferers. Biological Psychiatry,

        54:1092-1098, 2003.

     3.     Germain A, Hall M, Krakow B, Shear MK, Buysse DJ. A brief sleep scale for posttraumatic stress disorder: Pittsburgh Sleep

        Quality Index Addendum for PTSD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19:233-244, 2004.

     4.     Germain A, Buysse DJ, Shear MK, Fayyad R, Austin C. Clinical correlates of sleep disturbance severity in posttraumatic

        stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17:477-484, 2004.

     5.     Germain A, Buysse DJ, Wood AM, Nofzinger EA. Functional neuroanatomical correlates of eye movements during rapid

        eye movement (REM) sleep in depressed patients. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 130(3):259-68, 2004.

     6.     Germain A, Nofzinger EA, Kupfer DJ, Buysse DJ. Neurobiology of NREM sleep in depression: Further evidence for

        hypofrontality and thalamic dysregulation. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161:1856-1863, 2004.

     7.     Germain A, Caroff K, Buysse DJ, Shear MK. Sleep quality in complicated grief. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18(4):343-346,


     8.     Germain A, Shear MK, Monk TH, Houck PR, Reynolds CF III, Frank E, Buysse DJ. Treating complicated grief: Effects on

        sleep quality. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 4(3):152-163, 2006.

     9.     Nofzinger EA, Nissen C, Germain A, Moul DE, Hall M, Price JC, Miewald JM, Buysse DJ. Regional cerebral metabolic

        correlates of WASO during NREM sleep in insomnia. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2(3):316-322, 2006.

     10.     Germain A, Moul DE, Franzen PL, Miewald JM, Reynolds CF III, Monk TH, Buysse DJ. Effects of a brief behavioral

        treatment for late-life insomnia: Preliminary findings. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2(4): 403-406, 2006.

     11.     Germain A, Nofzinger EA, Meltzer CC, Wood AM, Kupfer DJ, Moore RY, Buysse DJ. Diurnal variation in regional brain

        glucose metabolism in depression. Biological Psychiatry, 62:438-445, 2007. PMCID: PMC3195370

     12.     Germain A, Shear MK, Hall M, Buysse DJ. Effects of a brief behavioral treatment for PTSD-related sleep disturbances: A

        pilot study. Behaviour and Research Therapy, 45(3): 627-632, 2007.

     13.     Germain A, Buysse DJ, Nofzinger EA. Sleep-specific mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder: Integrative

        review and neurobiological hypotheses. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 12(3):185-195, 2008. PMCID: PMC2490669

     14.     Germain A, Kupfer DJ. Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in Depression. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and

        Experimental, 23:571-585, 2008. PMCID: PMC2612129

     15.     Troxel W, Germain A. Insecure attachment is an independent correlate of objective sleep disturbances in military veterans.

        Sleep Medicine, 12:860-865, 2011. PMCID: PMC21925945

     16.     Alarcon LH, Germain A, Clontz AS, Roach E, Nicholas DH, Zenati M, Peitzman AB, Sperry JL. Predictors of post-traumatic

        stress disorder following civilian trauma: highest incidence and severity of symptoms after assault. Journal of Trauma and

        Acute Care Surgery, 72(3):629-637, 2012.

     17.     Germain A, Richardson R, Moul DE, Mammen O, Haas G, Forman SD, Rode N, Begley A., Nofzinger EA.

        Placebo-controlled comparison of prazosin and cognitive-behavioral treatments for sleep disturbances in US Military

        Veterans. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 72(2):89-96, 2012. PMCID: PMC3267960

     18.     *Insana S, Kolko DJ, Germain A. Early-life trauma is associated with rapid eye movement sleep fragmentation among

        military veterans. Biological Psychology, 89(3):570-579, 2012. PMCID: PMC3299844

     19.     *Hasler BP, Germain A, Nofzinger E, Kupfer DJ, Krafty RT, Rothernberger SD, James JA, Bi W, Buysse DJ. Chronotype and

        diurnal patterns of positive affect and affective neural circuitry in primary insomnia. Journal of Sleep Research, 21(5):

        515-526, 2012. PMCID: PMC3371278

     20.     *Cohen DJ, Begley A, Alman JJ, Cashmere DJ, Pietrone RN, Seres RJ, Germain A. Quantitative EEG during REM and

        NREM sleep in combat-exposed veterans with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Sleep Research,

        22(1):76-82, 2013. PMCID: PMC3488164

     21.     Troxel WM, Germain A, Buysse DJ. Clinical management of insomnia with Brief Behavioral Treatment (BBTI). Behavioral

        Sleep Medicine, 10(4):266-279, 2012. PMCID: PMC3622949

     22.     Germain A, James J, Insana S, Herringa RJ, Mammen O, Price J, Nofzinger EA. A window into the invisible wound of war:

        Functional neuroimaging of REM sleep in returning combat veterans with PTSD. Psychiatry Research, 211(2):176-9, 2013.

        PMCID: PMC3570584

     23.     *Insana SP, Hall M, Buysse DJ, Germain A. Validation of the pittsburgh sleep quality index addendum for posttraumatic

        stress disorder (PSQI-A) in U.S. male military veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(2):192-200, 2013. PMCID:


     24.     Germain A. Sleep disturbances as the hallmark of PTSD: Where are we now? American Journal of Psychiatry,

        170(4):372-382, 2013. PMCID: PMC4197954

     25.     *Herringa RJ, Phillips M, Almeida J, Insana S, Germain A. Post-traumatic stress symptoms correlate with smaller subgenual

        cingulate, caudate, and insula volumes in non-medicated combat veterans. Psychiatry Research, 203(2-3):139-45, 2012.

        PMCID: PMC3466380

     26.     *Herringa RJ, Phillips ML, Fournier JC, Kronhaus DM, Germain A. Childhood and adult trauma both correlate with dorsal

        anterior cingulate activation to threat in combat veterans. Psychological Medicine, 43(7):1533-42, 2013. PMCID:


     27.     *McDowell AL, Filippone AB, Balbir A, Germain A, O’Donnell CP. Mild transient hypercapnia as a novel fear conditioning

        stimulus allowing re-exposure during Sleep. PLoS One, 8(6):e67435, 2013. PMCID: PMC3693948

     28.     Troxel M, Conrad T, Germain A, Buysse J. Predictors of treatment response to brief behavioral treatment of insomnia

        (BBTI) in older adults. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 15; 9(12):1281-9, 2013. PMCID: PMC3836339

     29.     *Bramoweth A, Germain A. Deployment-related insomnia in military personnel and veterans.  Current Psychiatry Reports,

        15(10):401, 2013. PMCID: PMC3832138

     30.     *Ebdlahad S, Nofzinger EA, James JA, Buysse DJ, Price JC, Germain A. Comparing neural correlates of REM sleep in

        posttraumatic stress disorder and depression: A neuroimaging study. Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging, 30; 214(3):422-8,

        2013. PMCID: PMC3869237

     31.     *Casement MD, Germain A. Is group imagery rehearsal for posttrauma nightmares as good at reducing PTSD symptoms as

        group treatment for PTSD? Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(3), 259-260, 2014.

     32.     *Stocker R, Cieply M, Paul B, Henry L, Kontos A, Germain A. Combat-related blast exposure and traumatic brain injury

        influence brain glucose metabolism during REM sleep in military veterans. Neuroimage, 2;99C:207-214, 2014. PMCID:


     33.     Mysliwiec V, O’Reilly B, Polchinski J, Kwon HP, Germain A, Roth BJ. Trauma associated sleep disorder: A proposed

        parasomnia encompassing disruptive nocturnal behaviors, nightmares and REM sleep without atonia in trauma survivors.

        Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 10(10), 1143-1148, 2014. PMCID: PMC4173093

     34.     Germain A, Richardson R, Stocker R, Mammen O, Hall M, Bramoweth A, Begley A, Rode N, Frank E, Hass G, Buysse DJ.

        Treatment for insomnia in combat-exposed OEF/OIF military veterans: preliminary randomized controlled trial. Behaviour

        Research and Therapy, 61:78-88, 2014. PMCID: PMC4180045

     35.     Lotrich F, Germain A. Decreased delta sleep ratio and elevated alpha power predict vulnerability to depression during

        interferon-alpha treatment. Acta Neuropsychiatrica, in press. PMCID: In process

     36.     Ellis JG, Cushing T, Germain A. Treating acute insomnia: A randomized control trial of a ‘single-shot’ of cognitive behavior

        therapy for insomnia. Sleep, in press. PMCID: In process

     37.     Edinger JD, Buysse DJ, Deriy L, Germain A, Lewin DS, Ong JC, Morgenthaler TI. Quality measures for the care of patients

        with insomnia. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (in press). PMCID: In process

     38.     Mysliwiec V, Williams S, Baxter T, Germain A, O’Reilly B, Luxton DD. Preventing sleep casualties: Understanding the

        unique aspects of sleep and sleep disorders in active duty service members. Combat Stress, 3(4):8-25, 2014.

     39.     Germain A. Resilience and readiness through restorative sleep. Sleep, 38(2): 171-173, 2015.


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          B. Sc., McGill University (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 1996

          M. Ps., Université de Montréal, (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 2000

          Ph.D., Université de Montréal, (Montréal, Québec, Canada), 2001

          Postdoctoral Fellowship, University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA), 2001-2005

Research Interests:

Dr. Germain’s research program focuses on the pathophysiological, neural underpinnings, and treatments of sleep disturbances comorbid with stress-related disorders, with a special emphasis on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military populations. Her federally-funded research project focuses on the relationship between sleep and neural circuits involved in anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders. Within the context of close multidisciplinary collaborations, her research program also includes studies aimed at examining sleep in traumatic injury, including traumatic brain injury, and the moderating roles of genetic and environmental factors on neural responses to threats and rewards.  Dr. Germain is a committed research mentor for medical students, undergraduate and graduate students, as well as post-doctoral fellows and residents, and junior faculty members. In addition, she is the Director of the Course in Scientific Management Leadership at the University of Pittsburgh and serves as faculty on several T32 postdoctoral training grants.